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P (1988) Rheological properties of certain Nigerian clay. Obi V S (1995) Experimental analysis of clay for refractory purpose , B.
The mined clay samples from the ten cites were mixed properly and a representative specimen for test from that location was produced using the cone and quartering system as recommended by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM).
Apparent porosity averaged 13% with 0% saw dust and 17% with 40% addition of saw dust bringing them closer to the acceptable range of 20-80%. When comparing the responses, the PID controller provides better performance compared with LQR.
Solid density averaged 3.18g/cm3 with 0% saw dust and 2.91g/cm 3 with 40% saw dust, still bringing them closer to the international range of 2.3-3.5g/cm3 . The simulation is done on various values for percentage of volume fraction recrystallization using both the controllers by MATLAB simulink toolbox.  James C ,"Optimization of microstructure development during hot working using control theory,"Metullurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol 28 A, pp.1921-1930, Sep 1997.
This 40% sawdust addition was discovered to be the maximum under which mechanical strength and other refractory properties of clay will remain stable. Agha O A (1998) Testing of local refractory clay for producing furnace lining bricks. Key words: Carbon steel, strain, strain rate, Temperature, PID Controller, LQR.
while thermal conductivity averaged 0.493W/mo k with 0% saw dust and 0.134W/mo k with 40% saw dust thereby improving their insulating properties. Resulting tabulated performance indices showed a considerable improvement in settling time besides reducing steady state error. Kirk: Optimal Control Theory: An Introduction, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1970, pp.